At the time of foundation of the University of Athens in 1837, Mathematics as well as all Sciences were part of the studies of the School of Philosophy. This was a consequence of the organization of the University following German standards, according to which the newly established natural sciences and their teaching were supposed to form part of the general philosophical studies. After all, in the broader European environment of the time, the natural sciences, as essentially a theoretical study of nature, were not completely detached from the philosophical context in which they were born and developed. The primary mission of the School of Philosophy was to train teachers for secondary education.

The first two Professors appointed in 1837 in Mathematics Chairs at the School of Philosophy were Constantine Negris (1804-1880), from 1837 to 1845, and George K. Vouris (1802-1860), from 1837 to 1855. Vouris wrote the five-volume "Series of Mathematics" and, among other subjects, taught Astronomy from 1844 to 1855. With his hard work he convinced the then Consul General of Greece to Vienna, Baron George Sinas, to finance the founding of the National Athens Observatory, which began operating in September 1846. Vouris served as the First Director of the Observatory and launched the scientific activity of the institution with the determination of its astronomical coordinates. Other Mathematician-Astronomers who served as Professors were Ioannis Papadakis (1825-1876) and Dimitrios Kokkidis (1840-1896).

Of the Greek mathematicians of the time, the first to gain international recognition was Nikolaos H. Nikolaidis (1826-1889). Nikolaidis was an army officer and engineer. He studied at the University of Paris, where he was awarded an honorary state doctorate. He was a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Athens from 1871 to 1881. He took part in the Cretan Revolution of 1866 as head of a volunteer corps.

The first recipient of a doctorate degree (with honors) from the Department of Mathematics of the School of Philosophy was Vassilios Lacon (1830 - 1900), on May 20, 1850. Lacon taught in secondary education. He later became a Fellow and in 1862 was appointed Professor of Pure and Applied Mathematics at the University of Athens. During the academic year 1880-1881 he was Rector of the institution. Lacon's textbooks, even by today's standards, were valid, compehensive and methodical and incorporated all the necessary elementary knowledge of mathematics.

In the same generation was Athanasios Kyzykinos (1822-1894), who became Professor of Mathematics in 1872.

However, the first real boom of Mathematics at the Greek University was accomplished by the Professors of the next generation, who of course stepped on the foundations laid down by their predecessors. These are Ioannis N. Hadjidakis (1844-1921) and Kyparissos Stefanos (1857-1917).

Hadjidakis was appointed Full Professor at the Department of Mathematics in 1884. He taught for many years at the Naval and Military Academies and in 1888 he also took up the Chair of Theoretical Mechanics at the National Technical University. During the academic years 1904-1905 he was the first Dean of the School of Physics and Mathematics, a post he also served in 1911-12. Hadjidakis published many papers in international mathematical journals. In 1879 he published the book "Introduction to Higher Algebra" and later on the "Analytic Geometry of the Plane and Space". These books are characterized for their originality in the methodology followed, as well as for the clarity of the conclusions. In 1886 he published "Differential Calculus" and later the first volume of "Integral Calculus". These books became standard and were the basis of Higher Mathematics education at the end of the 19th century.

Stefanos, who had also received an honorary state doctorate from the University of Paris, was appointed Professor of Analytic Geometry and Higher Algebra at the University of Athens in 1884. During the academic year 1906-1907 he served as Dean of the School of Physics and Mathematics. While Hadjidakis is regarded as the predominant representative of Mathematical Analysis, Stefanos is considered to be his counterpart in Geometry. His work is cited in papers by great mathematicians, such as Klein and Reye. Although Stefanos did not write any textbooks, his classroom teaching was proverbial. Ηe was also involved in the study of education planning and management. Stefanos was a multi-faceted and extremely active individual.

This generation of professors was instrumental in making mathematics transcend the Greek scientific boundaris and move rapidly to the international stage.

Meanwhile the question of independence of the Departments of Mathematics and Physics was becoming mature and was finally realized in 1904, with the contribution of Professor of General Experimental Chemistry Anastasios Christomanos, who had served as Rector (1896-1897). The newly created Departments of Mathematics and Physics formed the first two departments of the School of Physics and Mathematics.

Among the students of I.N. Hadjidakis and K. Stefanos were the following three Professors of the University of Athens:

Nicholas I. Hadjidakis (1872-1942), son of I.N. Hadjidakis, studied mathematics in Athens, Paris, Gottingen and Berlin (where he was born). After serving as a Professor at the Evelpidon Military School (1900-1904), in 1904 he was appointed Professor of Higher Mathematics in the Mathematics Department. During academic years 1913-1914, 1921-1922 and 1931-1932 he was Dean of the School of Physics and Mathematics. He published many papers in Greek and international journals. He also published the following textbooks: Introduction to Analytic Surface Theory (1912), Kinematics of Material Particles (1917), Spherical Trigonometry (1926), Clusters and Complexes of Curves and Surfaces (1929), and Elements of Upper Algebra (1933). N. Hadjidakis authored philosophical works under the pseudonym Zefyros Vradinos. He organized the Balkan Mathematical Congress in 1934, and, together with G. Remoundos founded the Hellenic Mathematical Society in 1918.

George Remoundos (1878-1928) was appointed Professor of Higher Mathematical Analysis in 1912. He taught mainly Differential Calculus, Differential Equations and Function Theory. He served as Dean of the School of Physics and Mathematics during 1916-1917 and 1922-1923, and was a member of the Academy of Athens since its founding in 1926. His books include Theory of Differential Equations (two volumes) and Course in Higher Algebra.

Panagiotis Zervos (1878-1953) was appointed Professor of Differential and Integral Calculus in 1917, while also being a Professor of the School of Naval Testing. In the academic year 1923-1924 he was Dean of the School of Physics and Mathematics and in the academic year 1935-1936 he was Rector of the University. In 1946 he was elected a member of the Academy of Athens. Zervos also wrote an interesting book on Infinite Calculus.

Georgios Remoundos (1878-1928) was appointed Professor of Higher Mathematical Analysis in 1912; he taught mainly Differential Calculus, Differential Equations and Function Theory. During 196-17 and 1922-23 he served as Dean of the School of Mathematics and Physics, while he was a member of the Academy of Athens since its foundation in 1926. Among his books are Theory of Differential Equations and Course in Higher Algebra.

Panayotis Zervos (1878-1953) was appointed Professor of Differential and Integral Calculus in 1917, while he also serve as a Professor of the Naval Academy. During 1923-24 he served as Dean of the School of Mathematics and Physics and during 1935-36 he was Rector of the University. In 1946 he was elected as a member of the Academy of Athens. Zervos wrote a textbook on Calculus.

Theodoros Varopoulos (1894-1957) served as a non-permanent Professor between 1929-1931; he was subsequently appointed Professor at the University of Thessaloniki.

A very significant, although short, presence in the Department of Mathematics was that of Constantine Caratheodory (1873-1950), as a Professor of Mathematical Analysis in 1922-23. Caratheodory was a mathematician of the Greek Diaspora and was originally invited by Eleftherios Venizelos to organize the University of Smyrna.

Caratheodory was one of the most influential mathematicians of the twentieth century. He was elected as a member of many Academies of Sciences, such as the Academies of Athens, Berlin, Gottingen, Munich, Bolonia and the Papal Academy of the Vatican. It was a very unfortunate event for the evolution of mathematics in Greece that the situation at the time did not allow a more permanent stay of Caratheodory in the country. However he continued to offer his services to Greece and he was the main author Law no. 5242/1932, according to which the Higher Education Institutions in Greece operated for 50 years.

Before the establishment of independent academic departments under Law no. 1268/1982, Theoretical Mechanics and Astronomy were courses of the Department of Mathematics. Constnantinos Papaioannou (1899-1979) was a Professor of Theoretical Mechanics. During 1952-53 and 1961-62 he served as Dean of the School of Physics and Mathematics, while during his tenure as Rector (1964-65) the Panepistemiopolis campus was founded.

Stavros Plakidis (1893-1992) Demetrios Kotsakis (1909-1986) served as Professors of Astronomy.